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Charakteristische Funktionen aus deutschen Ringversuchsdaten

Die Funktion

Diese Internetseite soll die Ergebnisse der Berechnung von charakteristischen Funktionen aus deutschen Wasserringversuchsdaten zeigen. Daten deutscher Veranstalter von Wasserringversuchen (hauptsächlich AQS Baden-Württemberg) werden genutzt, um die Konzentrationsabhängigkeit der relativen Vergleichstandardabweichung darzustellen1. Eine charakteristische Funktion2-4 der folgenden Form wird genutzt, um diese Abhängigkeit zu beschreiben.

characteristic function, wobei y(Dach) die relative Standardabweichung und x die Konzentration des Analyten ist.

Die Funktion wird aus mehreren, verschiedenen Datensätzen durch gewichtete Regression (kleinste Fehlerquadrate) ermittelt.

Für kleine Konzentrationen impliziert diese Funktion, dass die absolute Standardabweichung konstant und gleich α ist. Für hohe Konzentrationen wird die relative Standardabweichung als konstant und gleich β angenommen. Die Konzentration, die den Übergang von konstanter absoluter zu konstanter relativer Standardabweichung (den Bruchpunkt) beschreibt, kann aus α/β berechnet werden.

α und β werden aus Ringversuchsdaten abgeschätzt. Aufgrund von Bewertungsproblemen werden Konzentrationen nahe der Bestimmungsgrenze in Ringversuchen gewöhnlich vermieden. Deshalb ist in den meisten Fällen die Abschätzung des Parameters β möglich, aber die Schätzung von α aus Ringversuchsdaten ist oft nicht zuverlässig genug. In der nachfolgenden Tabelle werden α-Werte nur dann angegeben, wenn der Bruchpunkt über dem 1.Quartil des Datensatzes liegt, d.h. 25% der Daten unter dem Bruchpunkt liegen. In derselben Weise werden β-Werte nur dann angegeben, wenn der Bruchpunkt unterhalb des 3. Quartils des Datensatzes liegt, so dass sich 25% der Daten oberhalb des Bruchpunkts befinden.

Mögliche Anwendungen der charakteristischen Funktion

Der Bruchpunkt

Für viele instrumentelle Verfahren ist es gängige Praxis, bei hohen Konzentrationen relative Messunsicherheiten anzugeben und bei kleinen Konzentrationen absolute Unsicherheiten. Viele Laboratorien fragen sich, wie die Grenzkonzentration ausgewählt werden kann. Der aus der charakteristischen Funktion errechente "Bruchpunkt" kann dafür genutzt werden, wobei angenommen wird, dass die Konzentrationsabhängigkeit der Präzision innerhalb des Labors vergleichbar ist zur Interlaborpräzision.

Konstante absolute Standardabweichung α bei niedrigen Konzentrationen

Ein ülicher Weg zur Berechnung der Bestimmungsgrenze ist BG = 10 · sr,0, wobei sr,0 die Wiederholstandardabweichung eines Leerwertes ist. Wenn wir - wie häufig getan wird - annehmen, dass die Wiederholstandardabweichung ungefähr die Hälfte der Vergleichstandardabweichung ist, dann können wir eine mittlere Bestimmungsgrenze der teilnehmenden Laboratorien aus LoQ = 10·sR,0/2 = 5·α abschätzen. Wo ein valider α-Wert aus den Ringversuchsdaten errechnet werden konnte, wird in der Tabell eine BG angegeben. In allen anderen Fällen ist angegeben, dass die BG kleiner als 5 mal die absolute Standardabweichung an der niedrigsten Konzentration ist.

LoQ

Bitte beachten Sie, dass die errechneten Bestimmungsgrenzen stark von den Konzentrationen der Proben abhängen, die im Ringversuch untersucht wurden. Hohe Konzentrationen führen auch zu hohen Bestimmungsgrenzen. Im Umkehrschluss können aus laborspezifischen Bestimmungsgrenzen auch α-Werte für die characteristische Funktion berechnet werden.

Konstante relative Standardabweichung β bei hohen Konzentrationen

In ISO 11352 und im NORDTEST technical report TR537 wird ein Verfahren zur Messunsicherheitsabschätzung beschrieben, dass die Präzisionskomponente und die Komponente der Unischerheit aufgrund systematischer Abweichungen separat quantifiziert und danach kombiniert. Für die Präzisionskomponente muss die Reproduzierbarkeit innerhalb des Labors abgeschätzt und als Standardabweichung uR,w quantifiziert werden. Wenn wir annehmen, dass die Wiederholstandardabweichung die Hälfte der Vergleichstandardabweichung beträgt, dann wird die mittlere Standardabweichung zur Beschreibung der Reproduzierbarkeit innerhalb des Labors ungefähr 0.8·sR betragen, und damit uR,w=0.8·β. Dieser Wert ist in unten stehender Tabelle auch angegeben. Wenn kein gültiger β-Wert abgeschätzt werden konnte, wird stattdessen ein Wert von < 0.8 mal dem Funktionswert bei der höchsten Konzentration angegeben. Dieser Wert für uR,w kann von Laboratorien zur Plausibilitätsprüfung ihrer eigenen Schätzungen genutzt werden.

Nutzung der charakteristischen Funktion zur Schätzung der Messunsicherheit über den gesamten Konzentrationsbereich

Nach ISO 21748 ist die erweiterte Unsicherheit, U, gleich 2·sR. Mit den Schätzwerten α und β kann die Unsicherheit jetzt über den gesamten Konzentrationsbereich mit Hilfe der charakteristischen Funktion bestimmt werden.

Gesetzliche Regelungen, wie z.B. die Europäische Richtlinie für Trinkwasser oder die Europäische Wasserrahmenrichtlinie, fordern, dass die genutzten analytischen Methoden bestimmte Anforderungen an die Unsicherheit erfüllen. Die charakteristische Funktion - mit ihren wie oben beschrieben abgeschätzten Parametern – zeigt, welche Messunsicherheit bei einem bestimmten Gehalt in der Realität im Mittel erreichbar ist.

 

1 Die Daten stammen von folgenden Quellen:

  • AQS Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart
  • Institut für Hygiene und Umwelt der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg (http://www.hamburg.de)
  • Niedersächsiches Landesgesundheitsamt, Standort Aurich (http://www.nlga.niedersachsen.de)
  • Landesamt für Natur, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Nordrhein-Westfalen (http://www.lanuv.nrw.de)
  • Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (http://www.lfu.bayern.de)
  • Landesbetrieb Hessisches Landeslabor (http://www.lhl.hessen.de)
  • Niedersächsischer Landesbetrieb für Wasserwirtschaft, Küsten- und Naturschutz (http://www.nlwkn.niedersachsen.de)
  • Landesamt für Umwelt- und Arbeitsschutz (http://www.saarland.de)
  • Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft für Umwelt und Landwirtschaft Sachsen (http://www.smul.sachsen.de)

2 Thompson, M., Mathieson, K., Damant, A.P., and Wood, R.: A general model for interlaboratory precision accounts for statistics from proficiency testing in food analysis. Accred. Qual. Assur. (2008) 13:223-230).
3 Thompson, M, and Coles, B.J.: Examples of the ‘characteristic’ function applied to instrumental precision in chemical measurement. Accred. Qual. Assur. (2009) 14:147-150.
4 Thompson, M, and Coles, B.J.: Use of ‘characteristic function’ for modelling repeatability precision. Accred. Qual. Assur. (2011) 16:13-19.

Stand: 22.7.2013

Parameter Matrix Methode
Parameter Matrix Methode Einheit n cmin cmax α β Bruchpunkt BG uRw Diagramm
2,4-D drinking water all µg/l 53 0.04916 0.7812 23.1413% diagram
2,4-DB drinking water all µg/l 53 0.06016 0.8102 24.6821% diagram
2,4,5-T drinking water all µg/l 53 0.06481 0.8081 22.6468% diagram
a-endosulfan drinking water all µg/l 14 0.0819 0.6118 19.627% diagram
desethylatrazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.1191 0.710007 19.8424% diagram
desethylatrazine drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 12 0.1191 0.710007 diagram
chromium (VI) drinking water photometric µg/l 24 8.57576 59.2967 5.13272% diagram
chromium drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 24 8.56836 102.613 6.11185% diagram
chromium drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 22 8.56836 102.613 5.40861% diagram
chlortoluron drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.090561 0.812599 14.4397% diagram
chlortoluron drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 13 0.095312 0.812599 18.622% diagram
chloroform drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 43 2.39117 16.0137 17.0351% diagram
chloride drinking water IC mg/l 42 20.9994 265.646 3.06688% diagram
calcium drinking water complexometric mg/l 13 50.8821 201.797 2.49529 2.09823% diagram
calcium drinking water IC mg/l 16 50.3154 183.134 2.49811% diagram
cadmium drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 24 1.05057 10.1665 6.34721% diagram
cadmium drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 23 1.05057 10.1665 7.32751% diagram
bromoform drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 44 1.84097 16.6764 16.6231% diagram
bromoform drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 44 1.93958 17.4056 15.3597% diagram
bromodichloromethane drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 44 2.34338 15.7827 14.8997% diagram
boron drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 36 0.07942 1.48864 5.28623% diagram
boron drinking water photometric µg/l 28 0.07942 1.48864 6.21303% diagram
lead drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 33 4.86242 48.1076 12.1506% diagram
benzene drinking water GC-HS/FID µg/l 44 1.00212 9.06126 22.1093% diagram
benzo(k)fluoranthene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 21 0.02782 0.205605 23.9527% diagram
benzo(k)fluoranthene drinking water LLE-HPLC µg/l 42 0.02782 0.205605 17.5228% diagram
benzo(ghi)perylene drinking water LLE-HPLC µg/l 42 0.027106 0.209578 25.7609% diagram
benzo(a)pyrene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 22 0.025597 0.209902 29.2347% diagram
benzo(a)pyrene drinking water LLE-HPLC µg/l 40 0.027617 0.230254 17.9993% diagram
bentazone drinking water GC-MS µg/l 12 0.088812 0.859085 diagram
atrazine drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 13 0.095012 0.841144 18.4663% diagram
arsenic drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 19 2.88614 20.0852 17.6836% diagram
antimony drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 18 2.38198 18.2842 24.9127% diagram
antimony drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 35 2.32285 19.0567 16.3964% diagram
ammonium drinking water CFA/FIA mg/l 26 0.229988 9.85749 0.0277819 5.07138% diagram
antimony drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 17 2.32285 19.0567 22.2783% diagram
aluminium drinking water ICP-MS mg/l 19 0.052985 0.197735 0.00492087 4.20545% diagram
1,2-dichloroethane drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 45 2.33736 15.4387 15.5756% diagram
magnesium waste water ICP-OES µg/l 12 5168 71763.6 diagram
calcium waste water ICP-OES µg/l 24 28869.9 140963 4.94434% diagram
boron waste water photometric µg/l 24 200.178 2065.82 7.7034% diagram
boron waste water ICP-OES µg/l 24 185.235 1980.1 7.95759% diagram
zinc waste water F-AAS µg/l 36 79.0161 4878.01 5.9182% diagram
nickel waste water ICP-MS µg/l 7 96.58 871.625 diagram
iron waste water AAS µg/l 40 119.286 3011.54 7.85299% diagram
chromium waste water ICP-MS µg/l 10 54.12 970.88 diagram
aluminium waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 198.52 2073.13 8.13499% diagram
dichloromethane waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 23.955 1078.88 17.0058% diagram
1,1,1-trichloroethane waste water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 42 12.2416 943.448 20.2319% diagram
tetrachloroethene waste water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 42 12.3057 973.513 22.595% diagram
tetrachloroethene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 10.4133 1036.12 19.088% diagram
m-,p-xylene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 13.2101 1110.29 18.8158% diagram
m-,p-xylene waste water GC-HS/FID µg/l 42 12.541 1108.28 15.7161% diagram
o-xylene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 10.2775 1075.6 18.2013% diagram
o-xylene waste water GC-HS/FID µg/l 42 10.2314 1031.74 13.9594% diagram
toluene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 12.3137 995.497 17.7837% diagram
total P waste water photometric - peroxodisulfate mg/l 30 0.626601 9.61304 3.52775% diagram
ammonium-N waste water CFA/FIA mg/l 49 1.98486 49.7542 4.51007% diagram
ammonium-N waste water photometric mg/l 51 2.10414 49.9057 4.61178% diagram
COD waste water cuvette test mg/l 15 40.9943 198.716 5.34702% diagram
trichloroethene waste water all µg/l 69 12.907 985.588 19.2215% diagram
toluene waste water all µg/l 69 10.93 1000.16 14.7014% diagram
TNb waste water all mg/l 93 9.19231 190.651 10.4872% diagram
nitrate-N waste water all mg/l 119 3.814 41.7278 3.77601% diagram
nickel waste water all µg/l 227 43.216 1029.82 6.20517% diagram
dichloromethane waste water all µg/l 69 24.4044 1165.36 18.5893% diagram
COD waste water all mg/l 189 28.998 266 3.34464 2.2668% diagram
cadmium waste water all µg/l 220 0.519 10.583 13.4026% diagram
arsenic waste water all µg/l 183 4.756 201.907 9.35747% diagram
AOX waste water all µg/l 186 20.4901 1363.46 7.53144 9.19312% diagram
1,1,1-trichloroethane waste water all µg/l 69 11.798 981.669 20.1367% diagram
silicate drinking water all mg/l SiO2 59 3.36197 50.9648 7.02702% diagram
selenium drinking water all µg/l 89 3 449.8 12.9793% diagram
antimony drinking water all µg/l 108 2.3 423.8 13.7605% diagram
p,p-DDD drinking water all µg/l 24 0.0245226 0.405836 23.1897% diagram
lead drinking water all µg/l 77 4.8 90.5 9.81738% diagram
tetrachloroethene drinking water all µg/l 99 0.524766 18.4875 19.6009% diagram
Permanganate index drinking water all mg/l 113 1.0262 21 0.286198 6.37634% diagram
nitrate drinking water all mg/l 158 4.09 189.898 3.56545% diagram
nickel drinking water all µg/l 77 5.9 89.8 7.12543% diagram
ammonium drinking water all mg/l 136 0.084134 9.85749 6.04467% diagram
manganese drinking water all mg/l 143 0.01606 0.664 6.50428% diagram
magnesium drinking water all mg/l 66 6.205 75.3308 4.24513% diagram
metolachlor drinking water all µg/l 42 0.069 0.755906 19.4351% diagram
metobromurone drinking water all µg/l 30 0.0539 0.881281 17.0608% diagram
electrical conductivity drinking water all µS/cm 115 264.25 5387 1.26863% diagram
potassium drinking water all mg/l 102 1.549 37.536 5.10377% diagram
ioxynil drinking water all µg/l 14 0.091 0.732 32.4875% diagram
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene drinking water all µg/l 92 0.013 0.257643 27.1875% diagram
mercury drinking water all µg/l 60 0.529873 11.58 12.0782% diagram
heptachlor drinking water all µg/l 21 0.0417 0.488 30.047% diagram
g-HCH drinking water all µg/l 38 0.0273 0.6474 20.6667% diagram
1,2-dichloroethane drinking water all µg/l 92 1.4469 16.0758 18.1159% diagram
dibromochloromethane drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 44 2.42841 15.3528 15.1422% diagram
desethylatrazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.122603 0.624626 diagram
cyanide drinking water CFA/FIA mg/l 28 0.0180208 0.124421 16.6833% diagram
cyanide drinking water photometric mg/l 50 0.0189583 0.133901 16.1189% diagram
chromium drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 25 8.56836 102.613 13.1203% diagram
chloroform drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 43 2.39117 16.0137 14.7137% diagram
chloride drinking water potentiometric mg/l 10 28.2734 265.646 diagram
calcium drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 30 50.3154 205.699 3.77399% diagram
calcium drinking water F-AAS mg/l 21 50.3154 201.797 4.62722% diagram
cadmium drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 34 1.05057 10.1665 12.5958% diagram
bromoxynil drinking water GC-MS µg/l 11 0.0929708 0.816355 diagram
bromodichloromethane drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 44 2.34338 15.7827 15.2985% diagram
bromate drinking water IC direct µg/l 42 0.007979 0.051366 31.4724% diagram
lead drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 24 4.86242 48.1076 9.27638% diagram
lead drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 23 4.86242 48.1076 8.59458% diagram
benzene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 11 1.02161 9.06126 diagram
benzene drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 45 1.02122 9.06126 15.1725% diagram
benzo(ghi)perylene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 22 0.027106 0.209578 27.7921% diagram
benzo(b)fluoranthene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 22 0.025597 0.209902 29.2347% diagram
benzo(b)fluoranthene drinking water LLE-HPLC µg/l 42 0.025597 0.209902 18.2221% diagram
atrazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.095012 0.841144 12.6499% diagram
atrazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.095012 0.743016 diagram
arsenic drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 24 2.88614 20.0852 9.65414% diagram
arsenic drinking water H-AAS µg/l 23 2.88614 20.0852 10.0209% diagram
arsenic drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 6 7.95015 18.4301 diagram
antimony drinking water H-AAS µg/l 34 2.32285 19.0567 13.9962% diagram
ammonium drinking water photometric mg/l 30 0.229988 9.85749 5.51091% diagram
diurone drinking water all µg/l 69 0.0569 0.808719 17.2937% diagram
dimethoat drinking water all µg/l 9 0.077 0.212 diagram
aluminium drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 21 0.052985 0.197735 9.46167% diagram
2,4-DP drinking water GC-MS µg/l 17 0.098226 0.874681 24.1815% diagram
2,4-DB drinking water GC-MS µg/l 19 0.088748 0.755347 28.6484% diagram
2,4-D drinking water GC-MS µg/l 19 0.085291 0.726167 30.8895% diagram
2,4,5-T drinking water GC-MS µg/l 29 0.092629 0.726209 25.4434% diagram
1,2-dichloroethane drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 45 2.33736 16.6086 19.1376% diagram
magnesium waste water F-AAS µg/l 12 5206 70197.3 diagram
calcium waste water F-AAS µg/l 23 29391.3 145952 6.35926% diagram
total P drinking water all mg/l 49 0.12649 5.35379 9.7911% diagram
nitrite drinking water all mg/l 121 0.049 1.4447 4.66983% diagram
sodium drinking water all mg/l 110 8.836 185.682 4.01896% diagram
metribuzin drinking water all µg/l 30 0.068 1.0234 20.408% diagram
metazachlor drinking water all µg/l 15 0.119685 0.827 25.5564% diagram
mecoprop drinking water all µg/l 67 0.05846 0.8464 20.1461% diagram
MCPB drinking water all µg/l 53 0.06283 0.80781 22.5554% diagram
MCPA drinking water all µg/l 67 0.0804047 0.88991 23.007% diagram
linuron drinking water all µg/l 15 0.144978 0.68752 16.6377% diagram
isoproturone drinking water all µg/l 69 0.059775 0.7742 17.1224% diagram
hexachlorobenzene drinking water all µg/l 45 0.0184 0.522515 25.4413% diagram
fenoprop drinking water all µg/l 53 0.06969 0.8217 18.2602% diagram
iron drinking water all mg/l 184 0.03106 2.788 6.26757% diagram
fluoride drinking water all mg/l 113 0.3948 4.842 5.98182% diagram
epichlorohydrine drinking water all µg/l 9 0.126353 0.98657 diagram
endrin drinking water all µg/l 15 0.0259 0.460973 26.4601% diagram
dieldrin drinking water all µg/l 45 0.0267 0.56463 21.0729% diagram
dichlorprop drinking water all µg/l 67 0.0741 0.874681 20.0368% diagram
dibromochloromethane drinking water all µg/l 99 0.274579 24.1129 15.7815% diagram
d-HCH drinking water all µg/l 15 0.0256 0.446872 27.0393% diagram
desisopropylatrazine drinking water all µg/l 18 0.155303 0.786547 26.8639% diagram
desethylatrazine drinking water all µg/l 45 0.0618 0.855 20.4529% diagram
copper drinking water all µg/l 116 21.0938 4452.1 5.28378% diagram
cyanide drinking water all mg/l 77 0.009 0.133901 18.1968% diagram
chloride drinking water all mg/l 113 12.2483 289.636 2.91078% diagram
chromium (VI) drinking water all µg/l 55 8.57576 88 5.57363% diagram
chromium drinking water all µg/l 77 5.91 102.613 7.55565% diagram
chlortoluron drinking water all µg/l 54 0.069 0.812599 15.9282% diagram
chloroform drinking water all µg/l 99 0.5634 22.3871 16.2885% diagram
cadmium drinking water all µg/l 78 1.05057 51.7 8.0621% diagram
calcium drinking water all mg/l 73 20.821 201.797 3.65416% diagram
bromoxynil drinking water all µg/l 67 0.06085 0.8781 25.3397% diagram
bromoform drinking water all µg/l 99 0.293117 22.7734 16.2036% diagram
bromodichloromethane drinking water all µg/l 98 0.5911 22.6431 15.017% diagram
bromate drinking water all mg/l 77 0.0074 0.07 25.1034% diagram
benzene drinking water all µg/l 79 0.493 9.06126 19.9548% diagram
benzo(k)fluoranthene drinking water all µg/l 92 0.011 0.205605 19.7224% diagram
benzo(ghi)perylene drinking water all µg/l 92 0.016 0.24 27.5359% diagram
benzo(b)fluoranthene drinking water all µg/l 92 0.008 0.2332 18.5201% diagram
benzo(a)pyrene drinking water all µg/l 92 0.005 0.230254 22.1086% diagram
bentazone drinking water all µg/l 67 0.06581 0.859084 23.4688% diagram
b-endosulfan drinking water all µg/l 14 0.0655 0.5632 19.0101% diagram
boron drinking water all mg/l 94 0.07942 1.94145 6.19642% diagram
atrazine drinking water all µg/l 69 0.0567 0.833 15.3923% diagram
arsenic drinking water all µg/l 89 2.59565 278.7 9.37041% diagram
aldrin drinking water all µg/l 39 0.0225322 0.676065 24.9853% diagram
a-HCH drinking water all µg/l 9 0.034 0.087 diagram
aluminium drinking water all mg/l 173 0.0345251 1.322 8.86672% diagram
fenoprop drinking water GC-MS µg/l 20 0.084176 0.785141 22.6187% diagram
iron drinking water photometric mg/l 8 0.102486 0.631846 diagram
iron drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 21 0.098844 0.929647 5.48327% diagram
diurone drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.085493 0.808719 0.017466 12.8522% diagram
diurone drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 13 0.085493 0.808719 19.0093% diagram
dibromochloromethane drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 44 2.34884 15.3528 16.41% diagram
mercury waste water amalgam method µg/l 18 0.307063 10.0767 14.5003% diagram
mercury waste water CV-AAS µg/l 39 0.380888 9.7982 0.114517 13.7644% diagram
zinc waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 52.163 5037.29 6.17755% diagram
nickel waste water AAS µg/l 38 55.7395 963.204 5.79866% diagram
nickel waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 43.069 940.241 5.74175% diagram
copper waste water AAS µg/l 39 44.9625 970.397 5.18031% diagram
copper waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 45.9481 929.62 5.32823% diagram
iron waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 113.894 2985.04 5.33276% diagram
chromium waste water AAS µg/l 38 53.85 975.167 12.3905% diagram
chromium waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 29.976 983.249 5.795% diagram
cadmium waste water GF-AAS µg/l 39 0.705921 9.54797 14.6086% diagram
cadmium waste water ICP-MS µg/l 24 0.709 8.938 0.165145 6.75473% diagram
cadmium waste water ICP-OES µg/l 43 0.74174 9.9072 14.5911% diagram
lead waste water GF-AAS µg/l 39 17.5439 211.419 12.2158% diagram
lead waste water ICP-MS µg/l 20 18.927 189.7 6.55634% diagram
lead waste water ICP-OES µg/l 45 15.5648 207.81 7.49657% diagram
arsenic waste water H-AAS µg/l 43 5.74756 198.194 11.1615% diagram
arsenic waste water GF-AAS µg/l 19 5.32714 212.125 15.5822% diagram
arsenic waste water ICP-MS µg/l 19 24.125 182.885 8.08014% diagram
arsenic waste water ICP-OES µg/l 43 24.075 193.4 8.77706% diagram
aluminium waste water AAS µg/l 30 229 2123.68 16.0108% diagram
dichloromethane waste water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 42 26.7004 1088.37 18.7921% diagram
1,1,1-trichloroethane waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 11.9222 1050.7 19.6163% diagram
trichloroethene waste water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 42 13.8233 974.273 17.1634% diagram
trichloroethene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 12.8143 1009.7 18.9611% diagram
ethylbenzene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 14.7067 1055.03 18.9048% diagram
ethylbenzene waste water GC-HS/FID µg/l 42 13.9842 1067.81 13.6767% diagram
toluene waste water GC-HS/FID µg/l 42 12.3097 988.399 13.0065% diagram
benzene waste water GC-HS/MS µg/l 42 12.6491 1087.49 18.1904% diagram
benzene waste water GC-HS/FID µg/l 42 13.1597 1061.41 13.8603% diagram
chromium (VI) waste water photometric mg/l 15 0.152608 1.98554 3.59364% diagram
cyanide waste water CFA/FIA mg/l 15 0.208143 1.97723 0.0459552 11.046% diagram
cyanide waste water distillation mg/l 30 0.271501 1.97742 12.2804% diagram
cyanide, l.f. waste water CFA/FIA mg/l 16 0.13059 0.998222 0.0361258 10.192% diagram
cyanide, l.f. waste water distillation mg/l 30 0.13074 0.944921 19.6844% diagram
total P waste water photometric - nitric acid / sulfuric acid mg/l 23 0.600286 9.63762 3.26117% diagram
total P waste water ICP-OES mg/l 45 0.55728 9.984 5.49133% diagram
sulfate waste water IC mg/l 21 83.2519 481.12 3.20472% diagram
chloride waste water IC mg/l 21 70.118 495.13 3.23759% diagram
chloride waste water titrimetric mg/l 6 99.4667 446 diagram
nitrite-N waste water IC mg/l 36 0.116537 1.40002 7.40302% diagram
nitrite-N waste water CFA/FIA mg/l 7 0.1306 1.37167 diagram
nitrite-N waste water photometric mg/l 42 0.114006 1.36429 2.913% diagram
nitrate-N waste water photometric - DMP mg/l 21 4.67429 42.82 5.40695% diagram
nitrate-N waste water CFA/FIA mg/l 12 4.33661 38.0717 diagram
nitrate-N waste water IC mg/l 51 4.29789 41.6606 3.3687% diagram
ammonium-N waste water titrimetric mg/l 29 1.92125 48.97 0.306713 4.96003% diagram
TOC waste water difference, therm-catalytic mg/l 24 11.0347 288.95 7.98698% diagram
TOC waste water direct, therm-catalytic mg/l 27 11.7345 292.283 4.6504% diagram
COD waste water open reflux method mg/l 45 29.903 191.854 3.22047 diagram
AOX waste water microcolumn method µg/l 33 31.9177 899.322 7.1399 7.60524% diagram
AOX waste water batch adsorption method µg/l 33 36.2596 913.767 10.1386 7.24001% diagram
zinc waste water all µg/l 183 52.16 4949.51 5.8445% diagram
TOC waste water all mg/l 186 10.302 299.037 4.88067% diagram
tetrachloroethene waste water all µg/l 69 9.44 1004.4 20.8703% diagram
sulfate waste water all mg/l 62 34.865 485.294 3.68513% diagram
total P waste water all mg/l 144 0.502 10.284 4.63848% diagram
phenol index waste water all µg/l 75 25.2455 170.446 18.3077% diagram
o-xylene waste water all µg/l 69 10.0662 1049.28 15.6313% diagram
nitrite-N waste water all mg/l 105 0.058 1.36502 3.94098% diagram
m-,p-xylene waste water all µg/l 69 12.5112 1101.49 17.1732% diagram
TPH waste water all mg/l 87 0.3 9.474 27.7521% diagram
magnesium waste water all mg/l 42 1.02909 99.9229 4.83628% diagram
copper waste water all µg/l 235 42.195 1030.69 6.05978% diagram
ethylbenzene waste water all µg/l 69 14.356 1061.72 16.3392% diagram
iron waste water all mg/l 182 0.09865 827.12 6.23419% diagram
cyanide, l.f. waste water all mg/l 57 0.117 0.951504 19.0529% diagram
cyanide waste water all mg/l 58 0.161 1.97484 14.5646% diagram
chromium (VI) waste water all mg/l 45 0.152608 1.98557 3.8858% diagram
chromium waste water all µg/l 227 30.202 1020.66 6.66062% diagram
chloride waste water all mg/l 62 55.873 493.671 2.99682% diagram
calcium waste water all mg/l 83 2.71356 151.774 5.17021% diagram
BOD5 waste water all mg/l 51 10.6993 179.568 14.7037% diagram
boron waste water all µg/l 84 106.358 2008.45 8.42737% diagram
lead waste water all µg/l 226 14.643 426.032 10.2607% diagram
benzene waste water all µg/l 69 12.123 1072.32 15.3615% diagram
ammonium-N waste water all mg/l 118 1.849 56.352 4.71295% diagram
aluminium waste water all µg/l 182 197.767 2083.64 8.51501% diagram
turbidity drinking water all FNU 114 0.2954 8.609 0.0909416 8.71045% diagram
trifluraline drinking water all µg/l 9 0.064 0.15 diagram
trichloroethene drinking water all µg/l 99 0.3794 17.5987 19.4104% diagram
TOC drinking water all mg/l 100 0.867794 23.2 0.238208 6.87786% diagram
terbuthylazine drinking water all µg/l 69 0.0543 0.811724 17.1997% diagram
sulfate drinking water all mg/l 92 20.585 296.024 3.35573% diagram
simazine drinking water all µg/l 48 0.07 0.875 18.9466% diagram
colour (436 nm) drinking water all 1/m 103 0.146905 1.965 0.0451141 7.72742% diagram
propazine drinking water all µg/l 33 0.067 0.820257 15.4585% diagram
p,p-DDT drinking water all µg/l 24 0.0232796 0.402616 28.9542% diagram
p,p-DDE drinking water all µg/l 21 0.0544 0.599 23.2255% diagram
o-phosphate drinking water all mg/l 28 0.381 11.2502 12.2158% diagram
parathion-ethyl drinking water all µg/l 9 0.036 0.138 diagram
fluoride drinking water IC mg/l 42 0.455874 2.58356 6.58008% diagram
fluoride drinking water ISE mg/l 41 0.455874 2.68427 5.42574% diagram
total P drinking water photometric - peroxodisulfate mg/l 42 1.11698 5.35379 9.94616% diagram
total P drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 42 1.29261 5.35379 6.77155% diagram
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene drinking water LLE-HPLC µg/l 42 0.030575 0.257643 25.902% diagram
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene drinking water LLE-GC/MS µg/l 22 0.030575 0.257643 36.6753% diagram
isoproturone drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 13 0.085306 0.768537 20.1575% diagram
isoproturone drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.085306 0.768537 18.8099% diagram
potassium drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 21 2.92568 19.4673 5.34313% diagram
potassium drinking water F-AAS mg/l 15 2.92568 18.5473 5.31669% diagram
potassium drinking water IC mg/l 9 3.78136 18.1044 diagram
copper drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 22 21.0938 200.28 8.38243% diagram
copper drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 22 21.0938 200.28 5.51574% diagram
copper drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 24 21.0938 200.28 5.37279% diagram
electrical conductivity drinking water potentiometric µg/l 24 317.942 868.33 1.33912% diagram
magnesium drinking water F-AAS mg/l 22 8.24103 50.9923 4.01388% diagram
magnesium drinking water IC mg/l 18 8.24103 50.9923 3.48192% diagram
magnesium drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 30 8.24103 51.0167 4.02922% diagram
magnesium drinking water complexometric mg/l 12 8.24103 47.4579 diagram
manganese drinking water ICP-MS mg/l 17 0.0204496 0.493994 5.04126% diagram
manganese drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 21 0.0203501 0.485683 5.06131% diagram
MCPA drinking water GC-MS µg/l 20 0.0899674 0.88991 30.1584% diagram
MCPB drinking water GC-MS µg/l 18 0.089511 0.788007 25.0948% diagram
mecoprop drinking water GC-MS µg/l 20 0.092967 0.770908 25.2955% diagram
metobromurone drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 11 0.094549 0.783128 diagram
metobromurone drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.090397 0.881281 18.0824% diagram
metribuzin drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 10 0.10998 1.0234 diagram
metribuzin drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.109219 0.756078 diagram
metribuzin drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.109219 1.0234 18.9796% diagram
sodium drinking water F-AAS mg/l 15 13.5224 148.109 3.61572% diagram
sodium drinking water IC mg/l 10 18.6453 135.478 diagram
sodium drinking water ICP-OES mg/l 21 14.0988 148.445 4.59286% diagram
nickel drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 29 10.1067 47.8225 8.29872% diagram
nickel drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 22 10.1067 46.9389 5.45095% diagram
nickel drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 24 10.1067 47.8225 7.98184% diagram
nitrate drinking water photometric - DMP mg/l 9 14.5715 62.3371 diagram
nitrate drinking water IC mg/l 42 6.10539 69.8929 3.51053% diagram
nitrite drinking water CFA mg/l 8 0.185229 0.565595 diagram
nitrite drinking water photometric mg/l 42 0.086803 0.606337 3.31526% diagram
nitrite drinking water IC mg/l 42 0.086803 0.606337 0.0242568 9.10773% diagram
propazine drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 11 0.086819 0.820257 diagram
propazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.093525 0.694828 diagram
propazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.086819 0.820257 15.7456% diagram
mercury drinking water amalgam method µg/l 10 0.53 9.987 diagram
mercury drinking water CV-AAS/NaBH4 µg/l 21 0.53 9.987 0.140371 15.5052% diagram
mercury drinking water CV-AAS/SnCl2 µg/l 30 0.53 9.987 9.92229% diagram
selenium drinking water GF-AAS µg/l 13 6.2561 28.3803 20.4039% diagram
selenium drinking water H-AAS µg/l 24 4.01217 30.4463 12.486% diagram
selenium drinking water ICP-MS µg/l 23 4.01217 30.4463 12.0467% diagram
selenium drinking water ICP-OES µg/l 22 4.01217 30.4463 2.6333 diagram
silicate drinking water photometric mg/l SiO2 24 5.31441 24.74 5.37966% diagram
silicate drinking water ICP-OES mg/l SiO2 24 5.31441 24.74 8.45247% diagram
simazine drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 14 0.086788 0.757617 19.0471% diagram
simazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.086788 0.757617 diagram
simazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.086788 0.757617 17.2383% diagram
sulfate drinking water IC mg/l 42 32.6653 265.115 3.22892% diagram
terbuthylazine drinking water SPE-GC/MS µg/l 14 0.088324 0.811724 14.2925% diagram
terbuthylazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/MS µg/l 8 0.088075 0.778466 diagram
terbuthylazine drinking water SPE-HPLC/UV µg/l 18 0.088075 0.811724 18.4745% diagram
tetrachloroethene drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 44 1.22671 10.4434 20.1601% diagram
tetrachloroethene drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 44 1.24235 10.4747 18.7077% diagram
trichloroethene drinking water GC-HS/ECD µg/l 44 0.994738 10.41 18.6343% diagram
trichloroethene drinking water GC-HS/MS µg/l 44 0.912641 10.2321 19.1645% diagram
mercury waste water all µg/l 105 0.205 9.8553 0.0909082 14.8187% diagram
copper waste water ICP-MS µg/l 5 59.7 905.02 diagram
uranium drinking water all µg/l 10 1.31 17.45 diagram
2,4,5-T drinking water HPLC-MS/MS µg/l 5 0.124543 0.560022 diagram
2,4-D drinking water HPLC-MS/MS µg/l 6 0.0879491 0.738684 diagram
boron drinking water ICP-MS mg/l 9 0.0808781 1.44517 diagram
bromoxynil drinking water HPLC-MS/MS µg/l 5 0.140702 0.818395 diagram
dichlorprop drinking water HPLC-MS/MS µg/l 5 0.080405 0.739475 diagram
Permanganate index drinking water titrimetric mg/l 24 1.71587 7.53845 0.448751 diagram
MCPA drinking water HPLC-MS/MS µg/l 6 0.10049 0.572047 diagram
mercury drinking water AFS µg/l 7 0.47201 6.48768 diagram
colour (436 nm) drinking water photometric 1/m 21 0.146905 1.84722 0.0487882 11.3524% diagram
TOC drinking water combustion mg/l 24 0.867794 10.4434 7.48661% diagram
turbidity drinking water nephelometric FNU 42 0.629867 2.4416 9.6891% diagram